Introduction to Pronouns, courtesy of Canva!


DO YOU KNOW WHEN TO USE THE PRONOUN "I", AND THE PRONOUN "ME"? It depends on whether it is a direct object, or the subject of the sentence.

Pronouns act as substitutes for nouns. Personal pronouns include "I", "you", "he" and "she" (all in the nominative case). If they are in the accusative case, they would be "me", "you", "him" and "her", respectively.

There is another case in English, the possessive. Once upon a time all nouns were inflected according to case; now inflection is limited to pronouns and to the possessive case.

I, Me, Mine

Mind you, even native speakers get confused about which case to use. Thus, while "John and we are going to the museum" is a correct sentence, many people would rather say, "John and us are going to the museum."

If somebody calls John on the phone and asks for him, he should reply, "This is he", but "This is him" is quite common.

It's All Relative

RELATIVE PRONOUNS include "who", "which" and "that". Usually, "who" is used for people, and "which" and "that" for animals and inanimate objects.

Pronouns used as subjects are said to be in the nominative case, while those used as objects are said to be in accusative case.

Possessive pronouns don't use an "apostrophe plus s" (for example, "the dog dropped its bone.")

"1:22 "He it is WHOM you bought from Judas, WHO was beaten with a reed and with fists, WHO was defiled with spit and had gall and vinegar to drink. He it is WHOM his disciples secretly took away so that it might be said that he had risen again, or WHOM the gardener removed so that his lettuces would not be harmed by the crowd of visitors."
I suppose that in the clause "He it is WHOM you bought from Judas", "he (Jesus)" is the subject, and "you" is an object. It sounds very old-fashioned, though.

Indefinite Pronouns

Include "anybody", "nobody" and "somebody". They can be used as either subject or object. However, we do not use ""anybody" as the subject of a negative verb:

Anybody isn't here
Nobody is here