Basic sentence structure is called syntax.
In an exclamatory sentence, pitch rises then falls quickly, and drops away. For example: "Stop here!", "Look out!", "Help yourself!"
You can tell from the pitch of the voice, clues about what is to follow in a sentence. Punctuation is indicated: a comma is signified when our voices rise slightly but do not fade out, indicating that more information is to come. For example, the sentence: "I like salad, potatoes, and meat."
A declarative sentence is a sentence that makes a statement. An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or emotion, while an interrogative sentence asks a question.
Two independent clauses can be linked to form a compound sentence. To join the clauses, either use a comma with a conjunction ("and", "but", "for", "yet", etc), or a semi-colon with no connecting words.
Thus the clauses "I am going home" and "I intend to stay there" could be written either: "I am going home, and I intend to stay there" or "I am going home; I intend to stay there." It is possible to use a conjunctive adverb to link the clauses with a semi-colon: "I am going home; moreover, I intend to stay there."
A complex sentence comprises an independent clause ("I will eat dinner") and a dependent clause ("when I get home") which does not express a complete thought.