MALAYSIA VS INDONESIA
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RECOMMENDED WEBSITES & WEBLOGS
Kamus Dialek Papua
KBBI Online (Indonesian Dictionary)
BAHASA STUDY RESOURCES
++Collins Malay Gem Dictionary++
Bahasa Malaysia & Indonesia
malaysia // south east asia //
AFFIXES IN MALAY LANGUAGE|
MALAY IS AN AGGLUTINATIVE LANGUAGE, SIMILAR TO TURKISH OR JAPANESE, IN WHICH AFFIXES ARE PRIMARILY USED TO CHANGE THE MEANING OF A WORD. They can change a noun into a verb, or a verb into a noun. Prefixes are called awalan, and suffixes are known as akhiran. While we do use them in English (for example, in the English word impossible im~ is a prefix which modifies the meaning of "possible" into its opposite form), they play a more fundamental role in Malay and the languages which derive from it. Apart from prefixes and suffixes, these languages use confixes, which are a combination of the two!
Below I will list some of the important suffixes and prefixes used in Bahasa Malaysia and Bahasa Indonesia, the national languages of those two respective nations:
According to this Internet site dedicated to teaching Bahasa Indonesia, "There are two types of verbs with the ber- prefix; those formed by adding the ber- prefix to a noun, and adding the ber- prefix to a root verb. When the ber- prefix attached to a verb root the resulting verb is a reflexive verb."
Berjalan .......... Walk.
Berkebun .......... To garden.
Bersama .......... Together (all the same people).
Bersepeda .......... Ride a motorcycle.
Berbicara .......... To speak.
Berduduk .......... Be seated.
Berhenti .......... To stop.
Converts a verb into the Passive Voice.
Dimakan .......... Eaten.
Used when the verb accompanies the subject. Some examples:
Dia akan membaca buku .......... She will read a book.
Saya menulis .......... I write. Using "meng" as a prefix before a verb seems to be similar to putting "to" in front of a verb in English. The Malaysian word hidap for example means "suffer", so menghidap means "to suffer". I typed this word into some Internet search engines and came up with these results:
1---Saya menghidap penyakit hepatitis B.
Could it mean: "I suffer from Hepatitis B"?
The use of the prefix "men", the verb stem and then the suffix "kan" extends or enlarges the meaning of the verb. For example, besar means "big", and membesarkan means "to enlarge, to make bigger". Another example: kempis means "shrink", and mengempiskan means "to deflate, to make something shrink". Or kemudi means "helm, rudder" and mengemudikan means "to steer, to enhance the use of the rudder". kemudian means "after, later, afterwards". Naturally enough, mengemudiankan means "to postpone, to delay, to make later". So you see, there is a logic here, and Malaysian grammar seems especially easy to master (compared to, say, Japanese!)
The use of the prefix pen in front of a verb seems to mean "one who does this kind of verb". For example, damai is the verb which means "peace, tranquility". Pendamai therefore means "one who brings peace" -- in other words a "peacemaker or mediator." Datang is the verb which means "to come or arrive". Pendatang, a noun, means "immigrant" -- the one who arrived here!
The use of the "peng" prefix converts a verb to a noun. For example in English judge is the verb, and judgment in the noun -- the act of judging. In Malaysian hakim is "judge", and penghakim is "judgment".
The prefix ter is added to verb roots to form stative verbs. With a stative meaning -- that is, roots that refer to the state of something or of a person, the prefix ter forms a word that emphasizes the accidentally of the action by which the state came into being or that is has been possible for the state to have come into being. The following list gives stative forms that we have so far, which also occur prefixed by ter:
tidur -- sleep; tertidur -- fall asleep.
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